- yielding to the hardship of the struggle and adapting to the state of affairs, abandoning a revolutionary perspective and the option for a reformist position of class collaboration (often justified by the thesis that after all "socialism is the progress of democracy”) in which the social democratisation of communist parties occurs, while social democracy, surrendered to neoliberalism, assumes itself as a pillar of imperialism;
- the leftist impatience and radicalism that denies the existence of intermediate stages and phases in the revolutionary struggle and places socialism as an immediate and universal task, regardless of the concrete conditions of each country, to the point of considering the struggle for alternatives of social progress and of sovereignty as a mere “management of the system” and even a deterrent to the development of the process of social transformation.
The State always has a class nature. It is absurd to speak of a "neutral" State, at the service of the "common good", above social classes and class contradictions as the bourgeoisie claims. When speaking of democracy it is necessary to ask: democracy for whom, for which classes? in whose interests, of which classes? An integral democracy can only be a socialist democracy, based on the power of the workers and the social ownership of the means of production, guided by the interests of the overwhelming majority of society.
1 From the Marxist-Leninist point of view the State has a class nature. The term "dictatorship of the proletariat" signifies the power of the workers, which is democracy for the vast majority of the people, while under capitalism there is a "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie", the power of a minority over the majority of society.
2 Lenin, Oeuvres, Editions Sociales-Editions en langues étrangères, Paris-Moscou, 1960, t. 22, p. 156.
3 Álvaro Cunhal, «A questão do Estado, questão central de cada revolução», in Obras Escolhidas, Editorial «Avante!», Lisbon, tome IV, 2013, p.223.
4 Álvaro Cunhal, Fracasso e Derrota do Governo de Direita do PSD/Cavaco Silva, Discursos Políticos 25, Edições «Avante!», Lisboa, 2016, p. 1288.